Sunday, 22 November 2015

What about Trove?

Lorcan Dempsey, who seems to divine library trends before they become so, recently synthesised a post about San Francisco start-ups. 

The backstory, about moving from London to San Francisco, highlighted how living in two very different places influenced the design of many 21st applications:
Bay Area problems
That is, living here after living in London, it’s easier to see physical retail as the inefficient end-point to a logistics system, and harder to see it as a curation, discovery and demand generation system. I sometimes wonder how much that difference shapes ecommerce in the Bay Area versus New York and London.
One can also look at Amazon in this light - like Sears Roebuck before it, Amazon lets anyone anywhere buy things that you could previously only get in a big city. But that is not at all the same as letting people shop the way you do in a big city. Buying is not shopping.[]
Buying is not shopping. Just as searching for a known item in a very large discovery service (buying) such as Trove is not the same as browsing for an item, which may appear in a results set serendipitously (shopping) but turns out to be a perfectly reasonable immediate answer to the question. The medium for that item might be a digitised newspaper or a link to a monograph, a journal, a piece of sheet music, a film, a map or an artwork. Trove does this effortlessly and well, crossing the boundary from traditional catalogues to pool information for a wide range of Australian sources.

This is the power of Trove, its design architecture reflects the need to approach research using one or other of those finding techniques. It expedites both, but with an extra fillip - collaboration. The National Library was and is able to work closely with its close cultural neighbours to experiment with and grow discovery services, curating an unparalleled  virtual collection of Australiana. Since 2009, this has expanded from libraries, archives, galleries and museums to include historical societies and local government collections.

The virtual collection is created by sharing item descriptions, not monopolising them, and Trove supports this bi-directionally. That is, when one agency shares the descriptions (metadata) with Trove another agency can copy those descriptions, through the Trove Application Programming Interface (API), to create new virtual 'shopping' experiences.

However if technical support is not on hand to manage the terabytes of metadata available via the API, there are multiple ways to experience collaborative digital collection building through Trove:

⦁    a simple technical method to become a content partner, and in return, receive a     persistent, unique label for every item identified  
⦁    transforming existing item descriptions to help distinguish items in search results, while emphasising which agency has contributed them  
⦁    supporting virtual repatriation to overcome territorial fuzziness, where cohesive collections have been split across geographically close boundaries
⦁    influencing digitisation choice, to feature previously unavailable items
⦁    alternative websites, working on behalf of collections managed elsewhere 
⦁    volunteer mobilisation, to fill in description gaps or improve the legibility of local community newspapers
⦁    experimental platforms, built on Trove content, which help us to understand our language, our 19th and 20th century values, and our environment.

 [Ref: 2015 Museums & Galleries Queensland conference].  
The impact for the general public and researchers is immeasurable. Trove points to items held all over Australia, when the searcher didn't even know that they needed them. And the searcher is referred to an agency, large or small, which they may not have been aware of before. The shopping experience is fulfilling for both searcher and agency.

Tuesday, 10 November 2015

Farewell to a gracious lady

Still-life with self-portrait
Viennese artist Judy Cassab died last week, on Tuesday 3 November. She was an extraordinarily generous person, a trait which shone through her art and her life in Australia.

Trove collates a lot of detail from a range of cultural heritage services about Ms Cassab's contribution to the country which adopted her, it is easy to find her story there. Not only snapshots of her work, but her thoughts are also captured for posterity in an interview from the National Library's collection, and as part of a joint initiative with the National Gallery

It is inspiring to hear the soft clear voice explaining the ineluctable force which motivated her painting. 

In 1999, the National Library decided to develop a new web service, which became known as PictureAustralia. An aggregation of the digitised images from art and photographic collections around Australia, PictureAustralia exemplified the value of collaboration nationally. Using simple web technologies, the creation of virtual galleries from physically separated collections became possible.

Internal discussions then ensued to decide how best to promote and raise awareness of the service. The National Library already held some of the works of Judy Cassab including portraits. It was important to illustrate the breadth of Australia's old and new collections, and Ms Cassab's contribution was an easy choice to feature. In addition, her generosity was already well known. 

So an approach to use her self-portrait as a postcard was made. The response was instant - "please go ahead and may I have several copies to send to friends?" The Library was only too happy to oblige, and this postcard was one of the reasons for the success which PictureAustralia became.

Monday, 5 October 2015

Buried in the vaults

An elegant old building stands at 120 Kent Street, very close to Barangaroo. It houses a vault with genealogical gems that capture the early history of Sydney's major cemeteries: Camperdown, Macquarie Park, Rookwood, Waverley and South Head.

Part of Ben Hall's headstone
This history is cared for by the Society of Australian Genealogists, and its membership is open to everyone with a research interest in local and family history across New South Wales as well as Sydney's 19th century architecture.

Some of that architecture is immortalised in the design of memorials and headstones which reach for permanence.
Nambucca Heads Cemetery

There are also maps of New South Wales cemeteries and visites-de-carte supporting the life stories, tragedies in death, and moving tributes to Australians who migrated from many countries around the world captured in photographs. The range of stories is extraordinary - from Ben Hall the bushranger to Eliza Donnithorne, believed to have inspired Miss Haversham in Dickens' Great Expectations.

The Society has a long track record of service to historians and genealogists. While the stories of the cemeteries and their inhabitants are available by visiting either 120 or 379 Kent Street, a digitisation fund-raising project was recently launched to unlock the photographs of headstones and other unique content from the vault.

The record of existence of many people, once acknowledged in the now crumbling headstones and memorial vaults, will be brought back to life. It just needs your support.

Thursday, 17 September 2015

Everyone's talking about Canning

Tomorrow there is an important event in Western Australia, a by-election in Canning. But this federal government seat is no where near the other place of challenge named for Alfred Canning, the Canning Stock Route. 

The Australian Geographic Book of The Canning Stock Route, p.10

Described as the most isolated four wheel drive (4WD) track in the southern hemisphere, the Canning Stock Route has inspired people from around the world to indulge in isolation, break time barriers and marvel at the sheer range of flora and fauna - some of it feral. It also instigated this blog.
But of course, it wasn't prepared for 4WD vehicles or bicycles. Originally cattle followed in the footsteps of men, horses and camels.  Over 1,700km from Billiluna to Wiluna, water was sourced and made available through more than 50 wells. While that may have been enough to sustain cattle, as the wells have fallen gradually into disrepair, humans have had to become more self-sufficient.
The Lost City of Termite Mounds, 16 September 2013

Those who have the inclination can find other timeless features by searching the breakaways for indigenous rock art. More than once, I could sense a living presence in some of the caves nearby.
Breakaways near Gravity Lakes, 17 September 2013

Ingebong Hills, 7 September 2013
It is wonderful then to have this art wander out of the desert to places where more Australians can see it. Following on from its successful exhibition at the National Museum of Australia in 2010, Yiwarra Kuju: The Canning Stock Route, it is now possible to see Kaninjaku: Stories from the Canning Stock Route in the same place (as well as online). 

And the exhibition We don't need a map, travelling much further than the CSR itself, is in the Gold Coast City Gallery at the moment. A rare opportunity to see a unique Martu experience.


Saturday, 22 August 2015

A gallery of lost art

Original PictureAustralia home page, 2000
One of the unexpected benefits of delivering PictureAustralia was a heightened awareness of art, particularly paintings.

Although all were presented as digital miniatures, the ability to traverse a slice of time, an artistic stream, or an iconic heritage statement was seductive.

As a result, exhibitions and galleries beckoned me; before that I would never have dared to breach their portals.  PictureAustralia was hosted by the National Library for 12 years before it was absorbed into Trove. Links to Australian art and artists are easily traced.

In more recent times, I have started to create my own gallery of orphan works. I find them in secondhand shops, and choose the small ones, most of which are no more than $4. Interestingly, they are usually landscapes. It's rare to find a portrait -  perhaps it's harder to give away an image of a family member.

These paintings are usually orphaned by the family of the artist, as a quick BDM search usually reveals that the artist has died. A description of place is sometimes also attached.  It is their sense of place which attracts me to the subject matter - a low timber bridge over a country creek recreating a reminder of childhood, a clearing of pines reflecting both snow and fire in the Brindabellas, or a snapshot of "Albert" trees. 

Part of "Banana trash", R Smith
A simple view made from dried 'banana trash' is captivating in its experimentation.

Almost none of this art is 'expertly' painted, which is why it is not in gallery, museum or library collections. Many of these agencies trying to save our cultural heritage are under financial strain. 

All curators know that suitable environmental storage conditions are an essential commitment made to ratepayers. As a result collection policies appear to have become more stringent to the point of appearing ruthless. Offers of artefacts are declined, collections are downsized, agencies which are shut down and have no exit strategy for their collections tend to lose items to the nearest tip. The risk of losing the context of our 20th century life is higher, especially if the digitisation safety net has not been cast over it.

However, personal items which illustrate the desire to paint, to experiment with a natural fibre or to recreate a memory of place sometimes find their way to my outdoor gallery. The investment made 10, 20, 30 years ago is difficult to ignore. Protected from the sun, they are safe with me. At least for one more generation.

Friday, 19 June 2015

The gabion monument for Harriet Baker

A wall of trees hides a ridge punctuated by two arches, the tunnels in the Pacific Motorway at Duranbah. The tunnels are buttressed by gabions. 

This ridge edges the property where Harriet Eliza Baker died on 6 September 1901, long before her mother Letitia Halligan (in 1934) and father Nicholas John Jones (in 1918). She was 35 years old.

Pacific Motorway, Duranbah 15 May 15

Harriet Jones was a 19th Century baby - the eldest of 15 children. Born at South Arm, Grafton on 30 June 1866, she was visiting her grandmother Mary Hines (nee Halligan) at Duranbah where she met Thomas Baker. Thomas was almost 23, Harriet only 18. They eloped to Brisbane and married at All Saints Church on 2 April 1884 but returned to the Tweed River to settle at the Cudgen-Duranbah crossroads, where her father-in-law James Baker held property.

Tweed Regional Museum,
Thomas, also a Grafton native, was a timber-getter and farmer. 

In the early 20th Century, he also managed the Duranbah Post Office from his home with the assistance of his daughters. [Source: State Records, NSW.]

Thomas and Harriet welcomed five daughters: Mary (Skeels), Ada (O'Loughlin), Florence (Philp), Irene (Cameron) and Ida (Campbell).

Harriet's youngest daughter, Ida Alice Maud (1894-1983), recalled herself and her sisters sitting in front of their mother on a horse. The dairy was in a steep gully and the children had to keep the crows out of 
the corn. Ida was only seven when her mother died after a three-week fight against influenza.

Duranbah has never had a cemetery. Harriet was buried near the Baker family property, surrounded by a low white picket fence. In the 1950s, the land was subsumed into a quarry. Although a search was carried out on behalf of the Tweed Shire Council, there was no substantial presence to exhume and reinter. 

Lone Graves Register, Tweed Heads Historical Society

In an interesting twist of fate, Harriet's father-in-law had been subjected to the same spiritual relocation. His second resting place was subsequently washed away in a Murwillumbah flood.                          
H.E.B. 5 September 1901

Her last-minute will and testament shows where her priorities lay, but no photographs or possessions of Harriet are known to exist. How difficult then to illustrate a life. 

While the monolithic Wollumbin provides the backdrop to this truncated life on the land, Harriet's gravestone will always be the gabion monument.

Wollumbin from Tomewin Mountain Road, 21 May 2015

Saturday, 25 April 2015

ANZAC Bruce Wilkins Campbell

At the Australian War Memorial, shining on the dome above the ramparts
photograph by great-grandniece, Dian Gargano 23 April 2018 at 18.54
I have only mustered the courage twice to visit my great-uncle's grave at Brookwood Military Cemetery near London. The endless rows of ended life are daunting despite the ceaseless care bestowed on these Australian sons. 

Bruce and Sid, 1916
It's possible that in 1985 I was the first family member to visit him, almost 70 years after his death, although his brother Sid did attend the funeral for Bruce Wilkins Campbell in this same eerie, peaceful place.

Bruce was the youngest and 13th child of his father William Campbell; the 10th child and 7th son of his mother Rebecca Mary Wilkins. He was 19 years old when he enlisted for service with his brothers Charles Douglas (Chad), Sidney Frederick and Henry John (Harry).
Soldier #4747

They took the train to Brisbane to register for the 9th Battalion, Queensland's first.  Eldest brother Charles was discharged before departure. After serving in France from 1916, only Harry and Sid returned home. 
Original Brookwood Cemetery 
photograph, 1917

Bruce was wounded in action on 6 May 1917 during the second battle at Bullecourt. He was paralysed by gunfire and shipped to the National Hospital in London, where he died a month later.
Thy Will Be Done

The family's devastation is recorded in two places - Port Macquarie, near to Rollands Plains where Bruce was born in 1896 - and Tweed Heads, the border town from which Bruce and his brothers caught the train to Brisbane. 

The Port Macquarie Library has commemorated the service of its town's sons by reaffirming the dedicated World War I Memorial. 'The Memorial was built by public subscription and was officially unveiled in April 1921. Atop the memorial sits a world globe bearing the words "They Crossed the Ocean". 
At Port Macquarie

The associated website commemorates the people behind those names. It is not intended, nor does it claim, to be a definitive biographical source. The information has been researched using publicly available information sources and, in some cases, information contributed by relatives. The scope of the website is strictly limited to the names on the Port Macquarie War Memorial.'

For the Campbell family and its most courageous son, this is a deeply moving tribute and recognition of painful contribution. 

The altar, Presbyterian Church
Presbyterian Church, Tweed Heads

In a time when large families were common, it was usual practice for names to be inherited down the generations. Two generations passed before his mother and sisters would allow a great-grandson to be named for this dutiful young man.

ANZAC Herbert Frederick Slocombe

Lieutenant Herbert Frederick Slocombe was the son-in-law of Walter William James. Bert's intriguing life story has many chapters. It seems that the more he risked, the more he was able to risk and his war service exemplifies this.
[2 February 1916] Studio portrait of 1360 Sergeant Major (Sgt Maj) Herbert Frederick (Bert) Slocombe, 4th Divisional Ammunition Sub-Park, Australian Army Service Corps, of Auburn, NSW. Slocombe is wearing an unusual modified flying motorcycle jacket and modified flying helmet. There are sergeant's stripes on the right sleeve. He is dressed for motorcycling and he was possibly in the 5th Division Supply Column at this stage. Sgt Maj Slocombe was awarded the Military Cross (MC) on 24 January 1918 for his actions in July 1917 at Vlamertinghe Belgium. Slocombe served as a Lieutenant, service number N60391, with the 6th Reserve Motor Transport Company in the Second World War. [AWM P04695.001]

The All-Australia Memorial
The original Digger and the 1929 Model, Liverpool Camp 1929
[Bert Slocombe and Jack Marsh]
The Australian War Memorial commented that receiving a Military Cross for diving on top of an ammunition dump to prevent further loss was rare and probably unparalleled recognition.

Bert relished the ANZAC Day marches, and made sure he was the centre of attention wherever possible, in both Sydney and later on at Cowra. Over the years this caused some amusement and concern.
Bert at right

Bert spent his formative years in both Melbourne and Sydney. Auburn Public School provided a fitting testament to his contribution.
At Auburn Public School

ANZAC Walter William James

Walter William James (at right)

The All-Australia Memorial

Captain Walter William James (1862-1931) was a Londoner, having migrated to  Australia in 1888 as an apprentice engineer  submariner. He was also an original  ANZAC.  

In the commemorative volume of Australia's Fighting Families, The All-Australia Memorial, there is a poignantly captioned photograph:  
Where the Australians won deathless fame - ANZAC Cove (looking south)

"This photograph of the historic beach where the Anzacs intrepidly won a foothold in the dawn of April 25, 1915, was taken shortly after landing. The beach is teeming with men and movement, and no time is being lost in getting stored ashore and arranging for the temporary accommodation of the wounded as they are brought down from the firing line; meanwhile roads are being cut in the cliffs to facilitate transportation of food, guns and ammunition to the trenches."
As orderly as a park - a well organised camp near ANZAC Cove
"It bears striking testimony to British love of order and routine."
The term ‘an original ANZAC’ (Australian and New Zealand Army Corps) was applied to those Australian and New Zealander troops who landed at Ari Burnu, a steep shore on the western peninsula of Turkey known as Gallipoli. It was the first day on land of a dreadful five-year commitment made by young men from two southern hemisphere nations of the Commonwealth. But some members of the Army Corps were not young, nor were they Australian. This was the case for Walter William JAMES, born on 17th May 1867 at 3 Burford Terrace, Poplar [1], the first child of Valentine James and Emma MERRITT [2].

Walter migrated to Australia in April 1888, shortly after the death of his father [3], at the end of a seven year apprenticeship as a marine submariner with Kirkcaldie Bros. in London [4]. He joined the Military Force of the New South Wales Artillery two weeks after arrival in Sydney, as gunner number 7, and in December of the same year became a permanent submarine miner [5]. After the Federation of the Australian States on 1st January 1901, the State-based forces merged to become the Commonwealth’s Permanent Forces. Walter re-enlisted in the Royal Australian Engineers in 1908, 1911 and early 1914 [4]. During that year the Australian Infantry Force was created, and in August Walter joined the volunteers as a Warrant Officer in the 2nd Field Company of Engineers [5].

The year 1888 was also significant in Walter’s personal life, as on October 24th in Sydney, he married Eva MEDCALF [6], the daughter of an upholsterer and a granddaughter of Adam HOWITT, the first agricultural overseer for the Australian Agricultural Company [7]. Over the next 11 years, they established a family of five ‘little Australians’: Edward Oram (1889), Emily Clara (1891), John Valentine (1894), Dorothy May (1896) and Walter William (1900) [8]. This was the family that Walter left behind when he embarked on the “Orvieto” from Melbourne, Victoria, in October 1914. He was almost 48 years old.

The ship’s last port of call before leaving Australia was at Albany in Western Australia, which the Adjutant was happy to farewell: “I cannot say how glad I am to see the last of Albany. Mothers, deserted wives and God only knows chasing with urgent telegrams all day…” [9]. The “Orvieto” arrived in Egypt on 3 December 1914, and after several months of training, the soldiers prepared to travel to Turkey [10].

A week before landing on 25th April 1915, Walter was promoted to 2nd Lieutenant. He is featured in an article of the 5th June 1915 issue of ‘The Sphere’ magazine showing the Australian lines consolidating their position at the now-named ANZAC Cove, one of nine men working unconcernedly as they moved supplies uphill. “Every round of ammunition, all water, and all supplies had to be landed on a narrow beach and then carried up pathless hills, valleys and bluffs, several hundred feet high, to the firing line.  The whole of this mass of troops, concentrated on a very small area and unable to reply, were exposed to a relentless and incessant shrapnel fire, which swept every yard of the ground, although fortunately a great deal of it was badly aimed or burst too high.” [11].

One of the Australians who survived said: “We were anxious before it began in my battalion. We knew some of the men were a bit raw. As we drew in to the beach the enemy opened on us with shrapnel, machine-guns, and rifle fire. It was worse as we got out of the boats, but we went through with it…I feel that to do what they did that day was possible only for veterans or raw troops. Only perfect discipline or perfect courage could have brought the men up the shore and the cliffs under that fire.”

“The enemy played every possible trick. They had machine-guns in the bush, the gunners with hands and faces stained green, and with boughs and whole bushes tied about them. Dug-outs everywhere with snipers, Turks and Germans, most of them with food for several days, and anything up to 2,000 rounds, and deadly straight their shooting was. We killed one in an Australian uniform with eight of our men’s identification badges around his neck.” [12].

Walter William James was commended twice for his actions in Turkey and France. His first commendation reads:

“Landed at Anzac with 2nd Field Company 1st Australian Division on 25th April and has done constant duty first with 2nd Field Company then with 1st Field Company. On the day of landing he took in hand that construction and maintenance of piers and also formation of the Royal Engineers Park at Brighton Beach under the most heavy shelling and trying conditions. On being transferred to the 1st Field Company he took over the supervision of a section of the defence near BARBED WIRE GULLY, by his strenuous efforts kept the trenches in a good state of repair, though heavily shelled at times, and straightened out the line by constructing new trenches…” [13]
With Regards & Best Wishes to all at Brightlingsea, Walter W. James (at left) 
France 5/7/16

Walter James was promoted to a Captaincy and transferred to France. His second commendation reads:

“At POZIERES between 15th and 22nd August 1916 he commanded the 2nd Field Company and was continuously on the front line work during that period. He showed great courage and ability under very severe conditions and fearlessly carried out reconnaisance in the front line under very heavy shell fire.” [14]

The Military Cross was conferred on 1st January 1917 by General Birdwood [15], and later that year Walter became an instructor/Camp Commandant at the Engineers Training Depot in Brightlingsea, England.  He was 50 years old. Three years further on, in December 1920, he arrived back in Sydney Australia aboard the “Bahia Castillo” after taking on the role of adjutant for the journey [16].
His children had not seen their father for six years. Walter William James was discharged from the Army in January 1922, due to illness, and as an original ANZAC he died on 8th August 1931 [17].
Church of England Cemetery, Smithfield, Sydney
 Entry for the James family from the 1881 British Census
Dwelling: 37 Sabbaston St
Census Place: Poplar, London, Middlesex, England
Source: FHL Film, 1341113   PRO Ref RG11  Piece 0506  Folio 113  Page 34

                                                              Marr    Age      Sex      Birthplace

Rel: Head
Occ: Brass Finisher



Stepney, Middlesex,
Rel: Wife



Stepney, Middlesex,
Walter JAMES
Rel: Son
Occ: Scholar



Stepney, Middlesex,
Rel: Son
Occ: Scholar



Stepney, Middlesex,
Rel: Daur
Occ: Scholar



Bromley, Middlesex,
Thomas JAMES
Rel: Son
Occ: Scholar



Poplar, Middlesex,

Rel: Daur



Poplar, Middlesex,
Rel: Lodger
Occ: Painter




New Yorkshire


This article was informed by a thesis written for a Graduate Diploma in Family Historical Studies under the auspices of the Society of Australian Genealogists, June 1998.

Brief Family Tree:

                                                                                    Father: Walter JAMES

                                                Valentine JAMES        

                                                b. 14 Feb. 1843             Mother: Ann CULVERHOUSE

                                                33 Turner St.

                                                Mile End Old Town


                                                d. 16 Feb. 1887

                                                London Hospital



Walter William JAMES

b. 1867

3 Burford Terrace

Robin Hood Lane                       married 5 Aug. 1866,

Poplar, London.                         St John, Limehouse

d. 1931

Sydney, Australia

                                                                                    Father: William MERRITT

                                                Emma MERRITT          

                                                b. 21 Jul. 1847              Mother: Mary Ann LATHBURY

22 Nelson St.

Mile End Old Town


Still at 146 Bow Common Lane in 1930 as Mrs. E. TURNER                              


[1] General Register Office, London, Birth Certificate for Walter William JAMES, Poplar, #143/1867. 

[2] 1881 British Census. 

[3] General Register Office, London, Death Certificate for Valentine JAMES, Whitechapel, #78/1887.

[4] National Archives of Australia, Commonwealth Record Series (CRS) B4717/1. Army Militia Records and Dossiers of Permanent Military Forces and Militia Personnel. Alphabetical Series: 1901 to 1940-FILE Name: JAMES Walter William.
The Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts located an entry for the Kirkcaldie and London Steamship Company in Kelly’s 1901 Post Office Directory at 4 Trump Street, Cheapside, London EC.  However, company records are held at the National Archives of Scotland. They contain no apprenticeship records (advice from Archivist, July 2001).

[5] National Archives of Australia, Personnel dossiers for first Australian Imperial Forces ex-service members, lexicographical series, 1914-1920, CRS B2455, FILE Name: JAMES Walter William, No.199.

[6] Registrar-General of NSW, Marriage Certificate for Walter William JAMES and Eva Jane Gertrude MEDCALF, Canterbury (Sydney), #2199/1888.

[7] Adam HOWITT, Census of New South Wales, November 1828.

[8] Edwin Oram JAMES, born 30 April 1889, #8500/1889, Redfern (Sydney) NSW

      Emily Clara JAMES, born 23 May 1891, #32445/1891, North Sydney, NSW

      John Valentine JAMES, born 27 November 1893, #20181/1893, Mosman NSW

      Dorothy May JAMES, born 22 March 1896, #14373/1986, Mosman, NSW

      Walter William JAMES, born 21 April 1900, #14478/1900, Mosman, NSW

[9] Australian War Memorial (AWM) 7: Troopship War Diaries, 27th October 1914.

[10] The most recent publication which described the AIF landing at what is now known as ANZAC Cove is Gallipoli Diaries: The ANZACS’ Own Story Day by Day, Jonathon King, 2003 ISBN 0 7318 1205 0.

[11] ‘With the Australians at Gaba Tepe: How they landed beneath the scrub-covered cliffs’, The Sphere, An Illustrated Newspaper for the Home, #60, Volume LXI, No. 802, London, 5 June 1915, p. 231.

[12] loc.cit.

[13] Australian War Memorial: AWM 28 Recommendation files for honours and awards, AIF [1914-1918], Collection 2, Box 13 (15).

[14] Australian War Memorial: AWM 28 Recommendation files for honours and awards, AIF [1914-1918], Box 1 (8).

[15] British-Australasian Publishing Service, The All-Australia Memorial (New South Wales edition) History, Heroes and Helpers, Melbourne, 1919, cardboard insert.

[16] National Archives of Australia, Canberra: CRS B4717/1.

[17] Registrar-General of NSW, Death Certificate for Walter William JAMES, Fairfield (Sydney) #12946/1931.